The real question is instead what’s the prohibited conduct for which an individual is called to answer under this criminal activity?
We could just just just take, for example, CampbellвЂ™s very own exemplory instance of the criminal activity of вЂoperating a radio receiver with no licenceвЂ™, by which he exposits the offence-defence difference. Footnote 57 How do we see whether the lack of a licence should always be the main crime’s offense, or perhaps the offense should rather be compared to running a radio receiver, susceptible to the defence of having a licence? Once we understand, CampbellвЂ™s solution would be to search for the pro tanto ( in the parlance, вЂprima facieвЂ™) wrongful conduct. This included the possible lack of a licence, because there is absolutely absolutely absolutely nothing incorrect with running a radio receiver as a result.